Bounded Context in my view

In this article, I will share my view about Bounded Context,
What does it mean,?
Why is it required?
The connection between Bounded context and Microservices.
I will try to keep it simple, and this article targeted to that audience who will hear the term Bounded Context while developing Microservices but having a hard time to understanding the Bounded context concept.
Before deep dive into Bounded Context in terms of DDD(Domain Driven Design), Let's understand what is the meaning of that in the real world.
We know the human is the most intelligent species and created different countries for the ruling. But Question is Why they created different countries or Logical Boundaries? In what basis Boundary has been drawn between two countries,  before Human civilization, in the Earth, we only have land there is no concept of country.
One compelling answers come to my mind is that to separate the administration, culture, laws, economics, so each country abstracted its people from other countries unless it is an impossible task to create one Unified culture, language as in ancients time different tribes has there own languages and cultures.
In the same country, there are some predefined rules, language, style every citizen follows. They understand the common language, aware of laws, currency, style so as a brief I can say, Citizens are sync with each other in a country and country has one Unified culture which every citizen follows and understand.
In programming, We apply Bounded context in the same manner, to separate different models/subdomains  from each other in a Domain/Problem space, In a Domain-driven design --Strategic design part,  we introduce Bounded context so in a certain context a model has a certain meaning like the countries where for a particular country--ceratin language, currency has specific meaning, But in a different country that currency or language is not understandable, Because it has no meaning/different meaning respect to that country. Like the word Fool, In English it means Stupid but in Bengali it means Flower !!!!
So If we consider Country as a Bounded context, and language/currencies as a Model inside that context we can easily map the concept of the domain model in a certain bounded context. The model has some meaning for a Bounded context but the same model has no meaning/different meaning for another Bounded context, So by Bounded context, we create a logical boundary where the model and business terms have a certain meaning and the Bounded context separate/hide the models from the outer world. All communication should be done via API. So it is obvious that under a Bounded context -- model and business logic maintains a certain law and maintain its own persistence storage and that is not directly accessible to other Bounded Context.

BoundedContext Communication: Any design has two common parts, abstraction of the data model and communicates with other parts of the system. By Bounded context we separate the data model in a simple term abstracting the commonalities in the business but How one Bounded context communicate with others?
Here the concept of Context Map stepped in, Using Context map we can discover How one Context depends on other Bounded Context, Like are two Context has strong dependencies. or one domain sends a confirmation message to another domain(Conformist) or may use a shared kernel/Shared model, I will talk about Context map later in a separate article, But as of now, you can think context map is for communicating clearly between Bounded Contexts.
At this point, I believe you have a fair bit of idea what is a Bounded context, But still, if you have questions How it fits in Architecture? go to the next paragraph.
Let say we have to design Online Student management system where Student can register to the site choose course accordingly, Pay the Course fee and then he will be tagged to a batch and Teacher & Student is notified about the batch start date and time slot.
As an Architect, you have to identify the bounded context of the different domain related to this business logic.
If we divide the business logic based on related functionality we can found four basic functionality
1. Registration process: Which takes care of Registration of Student.
2. Payment System: Which will process the Course fee and publish online payment status.
3. Batch Scheduling: Upon confirmation of payment,  this function checks the Teacher availability, batch availability and based on that create a batch and assign the candidates or update an existing batch with the candidate.
4. Notification System: It will notify Teacher and Student about the timings and slot information.

So, There are  4 bounded contexts Registration, Payments, Scheduler, and Notification.
Now let's dig down How each Module represents Teacher and Student and Course Models.
Registration process: It only wants the Student information and it needs it demographic information like Name, age, sex, address and which course student chooses.
There is no mean of Teacher in this context
Payment System : It treats Student as Candidates In Payment System only Student/Candidates financial information is required like Account number and based on the course fees it deduct the amount from given account, So here perspective of a student is totally different, Information needed in payment Service is totally different from Registration although Payment system may need few pieces of information like name, address of the student those are very minimal information.
The term "Teacher"  is not valid here, In payment System Teacher treated as Faculty and they can be permanent or Contractor based on the Faculty type Payment System choose the payment calculation either per hour basis or per anum basis.
Batch Scheduling: In case of Batch Scheduling System, it needs bare minimum information from Teacher and Student like name, Address etc. But it needs detailed information, of Course, Batches under the Courses etc.
Notification System: For Notification System, we just need the Teacher and Student email address or Phone number and name nothing else, And it needs the name of the Student management system and Course details, here Student management site acts as Sender and Teacher and Student denotes as Reciever.

Till now we have seen,  same Domain Objects Teacher, Student, Course have different meaning and use-cases for different Context, This is the beauty of Bounded Context ,we have multiple canonical models for same domain Object based on different context, So developers, Business, user are always in the same page when they are talking about a context, the concept of ubiquitous language is woven here, using ubiquitous language DDD create a unified system where every participant understand the language based on the context.
Now, the common question is why the Bounded context term is so popular in Microservices?
To answer this questions first we have to understand that DDD is applicable for Monolith as well as in Microservice, But in case of Monolith, it is vaguer and more of a logical segregation so only good developers can see it. The main reason is in monolith we have a single giant codebase, may we break it multimodule based on DDD create ACL/Translator when one module talks to another but still it needs other modules as dependent jars to invoke its method. Another point is as this is a single code base and multiple coders working on them so some not so skillfull coder can pollute the boundary or domain Object, Architecht can't create a physical boundary based on Bounded Context, But in Microservice architechture it is inherent as Microservice said that rather than a large code base we can create Small services which have it own code base and services are talk to each other through API or messaging, so It clearly says that understand the Business Domain break the Business logic in to multiple Bounded Contexts and each Bounded Context will be a separte codebase and they comuunicate through Context Map, To design the Context map you have to design API carefully, may you can use Port and Hub architechture So your code under the Bounded context is not comminicate with Outerworld and never polluted. Microservice offers this type of strong segregation of Bounded Context. Bounded Context is more visible and understandable in the context of Microservice.
Conclusion: Bounded Context is the basic needs, when you are trying to break a large business logic it helps you to understand how different part of the system use domain objects in a different manner with different terminology. Bounded Context is just a view to properly organize the business logic based on functionality but to make the business logic works --  communication between Bounded context needed, and it uses Context Map for the same. In my next article, I will discuss Context Map.

File Upload Using Angular4/Microservice

Upload a file, is a regular feature of web programming, Every Business needs this facility, We know How to upload a file using JSP/Html as Front-end and Servlet/Struts/Spring MVC as Server end.

But How to achieve the same in Angular 4 /Microservice combination?
In this tutorial, I will show you the same step by step, before that let me clarify one thing, I am assuming you have a basic understanding of Angular 4 and Microservice.
Now directly jump on the problem statement,
I want to create an upload functionality which invokes a FileUpload Microservice and store the profile picture of an Employee.
Let's create an Angular 4 project using plugin in eclipse.
after creating the application modify the app.component.ts file under app module.
import { UploadFileService } from './fileUpload.service';
import { Component } from '@angular/core';
import { HttpClient, HttpResponse, HttpEventType } from '@angular/common/http';

  selector: 'app-root',
  templateUrl: './view.component.html',
  styleUrls: ['./app.component.css'],
  providers: [UploadFileService]

export class AppComponent {
selectedFiles: FileList;
   currentFileUpload: File;
    constructor(private uploadService: UploadFileService) {}
  selectFile(event) {
    this.selectedFiles =;
  upload() {

    this.currentFileUpload = this.selectedFiles.item(0);
    this.uploadService.pushFileToStorage(this.currentFileUpload).subscribe(event => {
     if (event instanceof HttpResponse) {
        console.log('File is completely uploaded!');

    this.selectedFiles = undefined;

In the @Component decorator, I changed the template URL to view.component.html which actually hold the FileUpload form components. After that, I add a UploadService as a Provider which actually post the selected files to Microservice.
Now, I define a method called selectFile, which capture an event(OnChange event in the fileUpload form field) and extract the file from the target form fields, in this case, the File form fields.
Then I add another method called upload which calls the file upload service and subscribe itself ob Observable<HttpResponse>.

Here, is the view.component.html file
<div style="text-align:center">
<input type="file" (change)="selectFile($event)">
<button [disabled]="!selectedFiles"
Here, I just add a file upload field and when we select a file an onchange event will be fired which call the selectFile method and pass that event to it.
Next, I call the upload method.
Let see the file upload service.
import {Injectable} from '@angular/core';
import {HttpClient, HttpRequest, HttpEvent} from '@angular/common/http';
import {Observable} from 'rxjs/Observable';

export class UploadFileService {

  constructor(private http: HttpClient) {}

  pushFileToStorage(file: File): Observable<HttpEvent<{}>> {
    const formdata: FormData = new FormData();
    formdata.append('file', file);

    const req = new HttpRequest('POST', 'http://localhost:8085/profile/uploadpicture', formdata, {
      reportProgress: true,
      responseType: 'text'


    return this.http.request(req);

here I create a Formdata Object and add the uploaded File into it and using angular HTTP I post the form data to a Microservice running on port 8085 and publish a REST endpoint called /profile/uploadpicture
Hooray, We successfully write the UI part for File upload using Angular4.
if you start the Angular(ng serve) it will look like following,

Let's Build the Microservice part, Create a Project called EmployeeFileUpload service in STS or using, Select Eureka client module to register this microservice with Eureka.
After that, rename the to bootstrap property. add the following entry.
security.basic.enable: false false 
My Eureka server is located on  9091 port, I give a logical name to this Microservice called EmployeePhotoStorageService which runs on 8085 port.
Now I am going to create a Rest Controller which accepts the request from Angular and binds the Multipart Form.
Let see the code snippets of FileUploadController.
package com.example.EmployeePhotoStorageService.controller;

import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.http.HttpStatus;
import org.springframework.http.ResponseEntity;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Controller;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.CrossOrigin;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.GetMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.PostMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestParam;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RestController;
import org.springframework.web.multipart.MultipartFile;


public class FileController {

FileService fileservice;

@CrossOrigin(origins = "http://localhost:4200")// Call  from Local Angualar
public ResponseEntity<String> handleFileUpload(@RequestParam("file") MultipartFile file) {
String message = "";
try {;
message = "You successfully uploaded " + file.getOriginalFilename() + "!";
return ResponseEntity.status(HttpStatus.OK).body(message);
} catch (Exception e) {
message = "Fail to upload Profile Picture" + file.getOriginalFilename() + "!";
return ResponseEntity.status(HttpStatus.EXPECTATION_FAILED).body(message);


Few things to notice here, I use a @CrossOrigin annotation by this I instruct Spring to allow the request comes from localhost:4200 , In production, Microservice and Angular app hosted in different domains to allow other domains request we must have to provide the cross-origin annotation,  I Autowired a FileUpload service which actually writes the File content into the disk.
Let see the FileService code,
package com.example.EmployeePhotoStorageService.controller;

import java.nio.file.Files;
import java.nio.file.Path;
import java.nio.file.Paths;

import org.springframework.stereotype.Service;
import org.springframework.web.multipart.MultipartFile;

public class FileService {
private final Path rootLocation = Paths.get("ProfilePictureStore");

public void store(MultipartFile file) {
try {
Files.copy(file.getInputStream(), this.rootLocation.resolve(file.getOriginalFilename()));
} catch (Exception e) {
throw new RuntimeException("FAIL!");


Here, I create a directory called ProfilePictureStore under the project it is the same level to src folder. Now I copy the file input stream to the location using java.nio's  Files.copy() static method.
Now to run this Microservice I have to write the Sring Application boot file. Let see the code.
package com.example.EmployeePhotoStorageService;

import org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication;
import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.SpringBootApplication;
import org.springframework.boot.web.client.RestTemplateBuilder;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;
import org.springframework.web.client.RestTemplate;

public class EmployeePhotoStorageService {

public static void main(String[] args) {, args);


Ok, we are all set, Only the last piece is missing from this tutorial that is the pom.xml file.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="" xmlns:xsi=""


<description>Demo project for Spring Boot</description>

<relativePath/> <!-- lookup parent from repository -->






Yeah, That's it, if we run the Microservice and upload a file from angular we can see that file is stored in ProfilePictureStore folder, very easy isn't it?
Conclusion: This is a very simple example or I can say a prototype of file upload, without any validation or passing any information from UI apart from the raw file like comments, file name, tags etc. You can enrich this basic example using the Formdata Object in Angular, Another Observation is, I directly call the Microservice  instance from Angular, That is not the case in Production there you have to introduce a Zuul API gateway which accepts the request from Angular do some security checking then communicate with Eureka and route the request to the actual microservice for simplicity I just skip that part.

Change Method Call On the Fly:: CallSite

In my previous article, I talked about invokeDynamic, In this article, I will show you the coding how you can leverage the power of invokedynamic.
We all know that to load a class dynamically and call a method at runtime we use Java Reflection, Framework developers are often used Reflection to load class runtime and call a method at runtime. But Reflection has a performance cost as it does the security checking each time, On the other hand, invokeDynamic solves that problem and we can use invokeDynamic to runtime call the method.
To call the method runtime we need Method handle, Mow the interesting thing is we also change the underlying method call based on some parameters, It is a very powerful thing to do, the Same call can invoke different implementation on runtime based on parameter !!!

I try to explain you by a simple example, Say there are two methods call bark and mewaoo, Now based on the animal passed I want to call the corresponding method dynamically?
I will show you the code first then explain the code,
package com.example.methodhandle;
import java.lang.invoke.CallSite;
import java.lang.invoke.MethodHandle;
import java.lang.invoke.MethodHandles;
import java.lang.invoke.MethodType;
import java.lang.invoke.MutableCallSite;
public class MethodHandleExample {
MutableCallSite callSite = null;
public void bark() {
System.out.println("I am a Dog :: So barking");
public void mewaoo() {
System.out.println("I am a Cat :: So Mewaooing");
public MethodHandle findMethodHandle(String command) throws NoSuchMethodException, IllegalAccessException {
MethodHandle mh = null;
if ("DOG".equalsIgnoreCase(command)) {
mh = createMethodHandle(MethodType.methodType(void.class), "bark");
} else if ("CAT".equalsIgnoreCase(command)) {
mh = createMethodHandle(MethodType.methodType(void.class), "mewaoo");
} else {
throw new RuntimeException("Give a Proper Command");
return mh;


public CallSite createCallSite(String command) throws NoSuchMethodException, IllegalAccessException {
if (callSite == null) {
callSite = new MutableCallSite(findMethodHandle(command));
} else {
return callSite;

public MethodHandle createMethodHandle(MethodType methodType, String methodName)
throws NoSuchMethodException, IllegalAccessException {
return MethodHandles.lookup().findVirtual(this.getClass(), methodName, methodType);
public static void main(String[] args) {
MethodHandleExample example = new MethodHandleExample();
try {
} catch (Throwable e) {
// TODO Auto-generated catch block
If I run this code output will be
I am a Dog :: So barking
I am a Cat :: So Mewaooing
Explanation:: To call bark and mewaoo method dynamically based on the passing parameter, We first need to create  MethodHandle for each method.
MethodHandle is such an Object which stores the metadata about the method, Such as the name of the method signature of the method etc.
So here, I create a generic method called createMethodHandle, which returns a method handle.
To create a Method handle we need two major thing name of the method and the MethodType Object, MethodType Object says about the signature of the method. name parameter denotes the name of the method.
I create a generic method called findMethodHandle, This method passes the required parameters to the createMethodHandle method based on the passed command, If the command is a dog, this method pass the method name as bark and method type as void as bark takes nothing and return nothing (Signature of bark method).
Now , to change the invocation of the method we need a Calliste --Which actually flips the call, For two methods we have two different method handle, Calliste bound with a Method handle and  actually call underlying  Method handle , MutableCallsite can change the underlying Method handle Object (Strategy), so Callsite change the MethodHandle based on the command given.
Here I create a method called createCallSIte, which create a single instance of a Callsite Object, and based on the command, Callsite change the target aka MethodHandle.

Conclusion: This is a simple example but using Callsite and Methodhandle you can create a factory of Strategy and based on the situation you can choose the optimum one, so developers perspective it just a method call but ad framework developer you can choose what to call when like lambda in java8 maintained LambdaMewtaFactory.

Java:: What is invokeDynamic

In my previous article, I discussed --How JVM determines which methods to call at runtime?Also, we learned that In bytecode level, java compiler uses 4 special opcodes for method invoking

Now, the question arises if all types of methods invoking (interface, static method, instance method, constructor etc.) are covered by 4 opcodes, why there is another opcode invokeDynamic has been introduced?
Why invokeDynamic?
To understand why invokedymic is required let dig down to a real problem,  for a moment think you are building a framework where based on the command passed from UI you load a class runtime and invoke a particular method of that class.
Say you are building a Web framework like Struts -- Now based on the URL you have to map a java class and invoke a specific method so you will create an XML(like struts-config.xml) where developer explicitly put the strategy -- which URL map to which class and which method to be called.
Let's see the prototype of the XML.

<controller url="/employee" class="">
<param key="add" method="executeAdd">
<param key="update" method="executeUpdate">
<param key="delete" method="executeDelete">
<goto key="success"  path="/success.jsp">
<goto key="faliure"  path="/error.jsp">
Seeing, this configuration XML one thing is clear, based on the action taken by the user in UI, different method will be called for EmployeController class, If user performs an add then internally an 'add' parameter will be passed and framework checks that which method has to call for 'add' parameter and found it is executeAdd. Until  User does not take an action no one can tell which method will be called, so all the decision has to be taken at runtime based on the parameters passed(add, edit, delete).
Think how you can design the same in java, what is the weapon available in java to implement the same, Of course, by the Reflection mechanism-- By the reflection you are able to load the Employee controller class and based on the parameter you can invoke the appropriate method.

Pseudocode will be like that.

Class controller = Class.forname("com.example.EmployeeController");
Controller empController = controller.newInstance();
Class inputParams[] = {javax.servlet.http.HttpRequest,javax.servlet.http.HttpResponse};
String methodSuffix = makeFirstLetterCapital(empController.getParam());//add to Add
Method tobeInvoked= Class.declaredMethod("execute"+methodSuffix,inputParams);
This runs very well, It will take the decision on runtime except for one problem. Reflection has huge performance penalties because it is always checking security constraints like what is the method access specifiers, is the caller has permission to call the method etc, so for this reflection is bit slow.
This is the one reason to introduce invokeDynamic in the place of reflection, it facilitates dynamic programming -- where type checking and method resolution done at runtime. So by that you can add remove methods programmatically -- You can do bytecode engineering runtime I mean, you can insert a new method which is not in the class definition !!! or override a method runtime!!! invokeDynamic provides this type of flexibility, unlike reflection.
invokeDynamic is as fast as other opcodes, but to introducing invoke dynamic in Java is not an easy task.
Java is a statically type so type checking is done at compile time also compiler checks a method is available in the class or not if the method is not available it throws compiler error so the questions is
How can we trick compiler in such a way where we can introduce a new method at runtime to be specific type checking and method resolution done at run-time?

How invokeDyamic works internally?
To work the invokeDynamic opcode correctly two important components are MethodHandle and CallSite
MethodHandle: Method handles wraps the metadata about a method-- It holds the method signature so by invoking it you can invoke a method on an Object at runtime.
CallSite : Callsite can hold Method handle and if the Call site is mutable we can change the Method handle time to time, so based on the parameter we can change the MethodHandle and as Method handle holds the method so runtime we can change the method call without altering the bytecode instruction that is invoked dynamic, so same method invocation can execute different methods based on the parameters.
Actually when the invokeDynamic instruction is read by the interpreter following procedure happens underhood--  invokedynamic instruction is associated with a special method called the bootstrap method (BSM). When the invokedynamic instruction is read by the interpreter, the BSM is invoked. It returns an object called Callsite (hold a method handle) that indicates which method actually execute.

So, Calliste works like the subline in the Train track-- Trani always runs on a straight track but when it needs to change it's direction Line Engineers are pull the liver of subline so it joins with another line according to the needs and Train just pass on that line and change the track, Calliste mimic the same methodology when based on parameter it changes the underlying method handle and same method invocation call diffrent method at runtime.
Let see the diagram,

Conclusion: invokeDynamic is a valuable inclusion in terms of framework level developer, By invokedynamic we can get the real essence of Dynamic programming in JVM, Many languages which run on JVM uses the invokedynamic to achieve dynamic type checking also Lamda uses invokedynamic, In my next tutorial I will show you how to write Callsite and MethodHandle and How you can changeMethodHandle under Callsite dynamically.

How does method dispatch happen in Java?

 Have you ever wondered when you call a method like a list.add("Shamik"), How the actual method invoke in runtime?
If you want to discover the How part then you are in the right place else you can easily skip the article as it is not related to coding perspective. we know in Java we maintain two steps process
Compiler compiles and make the bytecodes
The interpreter takes bytecode and changes the instruction to machine code.
But think, When your code compiles to bytecode how the method call looks like and in the runtime how the dynamic linking happens, In a simple word how JVM find the actual method and call that method.
In this tutorial, we will discuss the same.
In java(till Java7) we have four types of method

1. Static methods.
2. private, package private or public methods
3. Interface methods declaration.
4. Some special methods like the constructor, super etc.

Now, as the actual method call happens at runtime, somehow at compile time(bytecode) we have to instruct JVM where to find the method or location of the method. But for some cases it is not possible to tell earlier(compile time) which method will be invoked( like in case of overriding, Polymorphism) so compiler has to defer the lookup of the method until runtime, so there are different types of opcodes are used by compiler to tell JVM what to do in runtime.
At runtime, JVM maintains a runtime table called vtable where each entry represents the precise location of the method. The help of this vtable, JVM actually dispatches the call to an actual method.
In bytecode, java uses 4 opcodes still java6 but in java7 there is a new opcode introduced called invokedynamic, I will write a separate article on invokedynamic opcode but in this article, we will discuss the other opcodes.
invokestatic: invokestatic opcode is used at compile time to dispatch static methods.
invokevirtual: invokevirtual used to dispatch instance methods.
invokespecial: invokespecial is used to dispatch special methods like constructor or super or for the private method.
invokeinterface: invokeinterface is used to dispatch a method call via an interface.
Now, we will write a java example and try to see the bytecode representation of that example.

package com.example.methodcall;

import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;

public class MethodCall {

public void addCity() {
List<String> city = new ArrayList<String>();


public void addState() {
ArrayList<String> state = new ArrayList<String>();


public static void main(String[] args) {
MethodCall target = new MethodCall();


Now I want to see the bytecode representation of the above java program so I will run the following command 

javap -c MethodCall.class 

Bytecode will look like following

 public class com.example.methodcall.MethodCall {
  public com.example.methodcall.MethodCall();
       0: aload_0
       1: invokespecial #8                  // Method java/lang/Object."<init>":()V
       4: return

  public void addCity();
       0: new           #15                 // class java/util/ArrayList
       3: dup
       4: invokespecial #17                 // Method java/util/ArrayList."<init>":()V
       7: astore_1
       8: aload_1
       9: ldc           #18                 // String Kolkata
      11: invokeinterface #20,  2           // InterfaceMethod java/util/List.add:(Ljava/lang/Object;)Z
      16: pop
      17: return

  public void addState();
       0: new           #15                 // class java/util/ArrayList
       3: dup
       4: invokespecial #17                 // Method java/util/ArrayList."<init>":()V
       7: astore_1
       8: aload_1
       9: ldc           #31                 // String WestBengal
      11: invokevirtual #33                 // Method java/util/ArrayList.add:(Ljava/lang/Object;)Z
      14: pop
      15: return

  public static void main(java.lang.String[]);
       0: new           #1                  // class com/example/methodcall/MethodCall
       3: dup
       4: invokespecial #39                 // Method "<init>":()V
       7: astore_1
       8: aload_1
       9: invokevirtual #40                 // Method addCity:()V
      12: aload_1
      13: invokevirtual #42                 // Method addState:()V
      16: return

Deep dive into the bytecode Representation :
In the above bytecode representation, except invokestatic all opcodes has been used.
If you noticed the bytecode minutely you can explore that for each method a section is entitled and each java line converted to a command. Let go through each method section

com.example.methodcall.MethodCall(): This is the constructor of MethodCall class, here you can find an invokespecial call because this opcode is used for calling a special method like constructor or super etc. if you pay attention to the commented line beside the invokespecial call you will find the method details
// Method java/lang/Object."<init>":() V: This says constructor can be found in java.lang.object which is detonated by a special symbol <init> and it takes nothing as an argument

 public void addCity() In this section bytecode use invokeinterface opcode for  the line
List<String> city = new ArrayList<String>();
and it is commented

// InterfaceMethod java/util/List.add:(Ljava/lang/Object;)Z which means add is an interface method  which is in java.util.List and it takes Object as an input argument.

Here invokeInterface opcode is used because, as we did the polymorphic assignment so at the compile time there is no way to know where is the actual add method implementation, so compiler has to put such opcode which will instruct JVM to dispatch the call to exact method from Vtable at runtime, so method resolution happens at runtime.

 public void addState():
In this section bytecode use invokevirtual opcode for  the line
ArrayList<String> state = new ArrayList<String>();
and it is commented as

// Method java/util/ArrayList.add:(Ljava/lang/Object;)Z which means add can be found in java.util.ArrayList and it takes Object as an input argument.

There, is very subtle difference in coding -- we use ArrayList instead of List so it is not a polymorphic assignment so it creates a huge difference in bytecode now bytecode knows the exact class where to find the add method at compile-time but still call will be dispatched in runtime as if some other class can extend ArrayList. But it uses Invokevirtual opcode which is used for calling an instance method.

public static void main(java.lang.String[]): The last section is entitled to the main method where we call two instance methods addCity and addState so it uses invokevirtual opcode.

Conclusion : In this article we have a fair bit of an idea how method call is happened using different opcodes, But in Java7 an important opcode has been added that is invokeDynamic, which opens the door to allow dynamic type language in JVM, so other languages which run on top of JVM uses this invokeDynamic opcode to make them dynamic language certain extent also Lambda Expression in Java8 uses the invokedynamic opcode, In my next tutorial I will give a detailed overview on -- invokeDynamic opcode.